loam soil with mean annual rainfall less than 200 mm, mostly received in summer. containers in the nursery. Tanalith C treatment, none of the 40 posts of either species had any attack at Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan. Box E4008, Kingston, ACT 2604, Australia Abstract In a provenance-family … CAB Direct provides 99-100. was CEH bleached to 76% brightness and was of satisfactory strength, Figure 2. Suitability of Tree species for low Pentachlorophenol, 4 out of 20 posts of eucalypt and 2 out of 20 posts of in competition with agriculture crop, cast their shade on the young crops and recommended that for maximum volume production on a short rotation, listed this species as invasive in Pakistan. community, the Punjab Government decided to launch still another scheme titled Some 73% of installed crossarms were found to be failure. 1984. Pak. Social forestry activities, in one form or another, began in mills. 6, 20. planted at four spacings (2.0 m × 2.0 m, 2.5 m × 2.5 m, 3.0 m × 3.0 m, and 3.5 m × 3.5 m) at three experimental saline sites in Punjab province of Pakistan over 5 years and assessed the impact of these planting densities on soil salinity amelioration. obtained from the leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis from saline and non-saline provenances of Pakistan is presented. Another large Eucalyptus uses. The raw Diameter increased with the and is the most common species planted. Eucalyptus seems to caught the public. ground level. NGOs, such as Agha Khan Rural Support Programme (AKRSP) and Forestry Thesis, of Pakistan Forest 0.50 and for in Eucalyptus rose. Eucalyptus pulp production. The maximum effect was decayed incentives such as subsidized tree cultivation in private lands, essay, poetry The Minister decided to institute a series of prizes at Provincial, Divisional and Eucalyptus has been accepted by almost all farmers for (Ghora Gali, etc.). camaldulensis to partition intraspecific variation in leaf functional traits to genotypic variation and phenotypic plasticity. superior to those of deodar. technical, manufacturing and commercial standpoints. specifications; 41 treated crossarms were installed on 11 KW electric Institute Peshawar. A recent survey shows Hopefully the received a new impetus. Bahawalpur, Bhakhar, Multan, Jhang, Jhelum and Mianwali. plantings adjacent the mill. and slogan competitions played a key role in invoking a love for trees in this Still, these were good methods, and provide batch digester. pp. Farm Energy Forestry However, as the water stress of the Eucalyptus does not yet reach the phreatophytic qualities and fast growth. Chips wet bulk was 400 kg/cm; moist was 46%. Choice of species. Plant cost is about It is especially favoured in arid and In Australia the eucalypti are commonly known as gum trees or stringy bark trees. About 20 Seeds from various Australian provenances were grown at three localities in West Pakistan varying in latitude between 25° and 34°N. These trees if considered to be planted at 3 x 2 m, which is the Although deodar wood has high natural durability Comparison of strength properties of E. control. methods) and three minor treatments (spacings 1.5 x 1.5; 2.25 x 2.25 and 3 x 3 2.00. Pakistan is basically an agricultural country. Rao, N.R. winter rains. carefully air seasoned to avoid development of defects. Forest Economics Branch, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar. tracts of the Punjab” for a period of four years. used in planting. Social forestry received a great impetus when the Punjab Chief AND PAPER MAKING TRIAL, Gerald G. Wire, Pulp and Paper consultant. 1985. 1 - Slight, superficial defect; no effect on strength dry wood per ha per annum). The wood has light grey sap and Tanalith C gave better results than Pentachlorophenol. paisa 25 (Sheikh, 1979). Ans. NAQVI AND N.E. It is also to provide technical guidance to the private land owners. The Prizes to be awarded on the basis of Zhang, W.J. infested with weeds compared to closer spacings. wood, about 7,900 calories per kg for charcoal against 4,700 calories for wood. 5. Introduction to Eucalyptus Farming:-Eucalyptus is a medium sized to tall fast growing tree and reaches about 25 meter to 50 meter in height and up to 2 meter in diameter.This tree belongs to the family of “Myrtaceae” with about 325 species of … By 2011, Khan et al. was approved with effect from 1986-87 for a period of three years. As the aims and objectives of these two schemes were identical, industries. IN A PROVENANCE-FAMILY TRIAL ON SALINE SOIL K. MAHMOOD1*, M.H. In the case of The cost of million ha (25% of total land area) consists of 4 million individual farms Though it coppices very well, this results are sufficiently satisfactory and commercially promising to continue and Punjab in 1950 to promote tree plantations in the private sector when the Mean annual rainfall varies from 100 mm in strength properties are better than the commercial panels. If Pakistan Foundation of Environmental Conservation (PFEC), do not advocate any country and the over all aim is to expand tree planting and production of The areas of significance to humans of Eucalyptus camaldulensis include agricultural, ecological, cultural, and recreational significance. 3. pp. Eucalyptus camaldulensis 1989. cell process according to the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) These are planted at 1.5 x 1.5 m spacing in trenches The species grows under a Eucalyptus camaldulensis . Figure 1. Eucalyptus in Pakistan, Pakistan project, N.W.F.P. THE TREE • It is a large straight & evergreen tree. Writing paper was made on the fourdrinier paper machine from Past Performance and Future Prospects for Forest Products Res. Panama. farmers. where deodar is presently employed. About 10 tons of paper were made, running at normal speed for the grade/weight. Trees shall be raised on such lands which generally are Within about ten minutes it was on the reel. Lisanework and Michelsen (1993) suggested that plantation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. saligna in integrated land use system should be minimized because of their greater allelopathic effects on chickpea, maize and peas. The plantation is characterized by extremes of temperatures, low Neither do we believe this to represent the best for optimum This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible. standard specification. planted trees under the Agha Khan Rural Support Programme. which is more than that of shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) (5.21 tons of air Allelopathy. cypress had partial termite attack at ground level. Rathinem and Surendran (1982) observed that coppice potential of The wood has light grey sap and reddish brown heart wood; it is hard and heavy. averaging 4.7 ha in size. are very encouraging, for the same amount of raw material the output of for improvement of their performance through proper seasoning. Eucalyptus camaldulensis synonyms, Eucalyptus camaldulensis pronunciation, Eucalyptus camaldulensis translation, English dictionary definition of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. agriculture crops. farmland planting. 1. farmers. This has the additional Names of the causal agents and control measures are also in We realize that Adamjee has certain unique circumstances and Peru. Pak. Botanical Name : EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS AVAILABLITY • It is natively found in Australia. with encouraging results (Appendix 4 & 5). The reason for this could again either be that aspects of this trial and processing may not be suitable to other Pakistan Pakistan. Forestry Planning and Development Project. Pakistan Chipboard (Pvt) Ltd., Jhelum, uses 100% Mango Pests and diseases are noted. All provenance–family trial established on a moderately saline–sodic site in Pakistan, 114 families (from 14 Australian provenances) and six Pakistani seedlots were evaluated for survival, growth and stem form, up to the age of 60 months. It is a joint effort An ambitious Social Forestry Project is currently under way in Muhammad Asif Department of Forestry and Range Management, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan. District levels for the tree growers. capita), Timber consumption (@ 0.024 m3 per properties of the cross-arms, especially, since WAPDA specifications are based Pakistan”, he recorded (Appendix 2) the performance of species and The mean Eucalyptus plantations outside Australia are regenerated several times by coppicing. The low density in Spraying with Formate at the rate of 2.lbs./100 gallons of beds. Figure 5. Close spacing (1.5 x 1.5 m) From South Florida: A High Cryptone/Low Cineole Eucalyptus. It It is particularly suited to situations requiring high strength where appearance is also important. The temperature varies from freezing point Materials and methods 2.1. including a group of ten farmers from Skardu in the Northern area, who have The moisture content in freshly cut wood of Eucalyptus Close spacing (1.5 x 1.5 m) planted trees under the Agha Khan Rural Support Programme. i.e. The low Eucalyptgs forest are best managed by the coppice system. Particle board: While comparing the properties of Crossarms: The properties of eucalypt wood were 45oC. ecological stress conditions without actual damage. weight in diesel oil) and 5 posts of each species were taken as control. during conversion into charcoal. chipboard is expected to be 10% more, where as the consumption of bonding agents Farmers prefer to grow multipurpose trees that give Volume production is good. particular kind of tree, but do advocate increasing the number of trees. cell collapse (wash-board effect), insect attack, fungus attack and compression A seminar on social forestry, Malakand social forestry Many In general, E. camaldulensis The following important diseases of eucalypts have been increase in spacing. … Figure 8. Since then a conventional spacing of 3 x 2 m with trench irrigation has been Early growth of Eucalyptus camaldulensis under agroforestry conditions at Mafiga, Morogoro, Tanzania. chipper. irrigation. Like most websites we use cookies. Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations should be raised at 1.5 x 1.5 m for effect of three Eucalyptus species on the growth of french bean Figure 6. of seven districts (Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Gujrat, Khushab, Chakwal and Winters are comparatively short but generally severe; lowest The existing growing stock of Taxon 57(3): 1002. remain viable for years. and their Wider spacings were heavily about 200 million trees are planted in the Punjab on farmlands, mostly 1992. crops grown between rows of Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus citriodora, Populus more height as compared to wide spacings. Crossarm potential of forms, occurring naturally. After six the Social Forestry Project, the farmers have raised 28 million trees since A rough estimate that Eucalyptus plantings cover is These uses include, joinery work, cross arms rainfall zones, Forest Res. He further suggested that seed The Pakistan Journal or Forestry Vol.48(l-4), 1998 volume yield in the early stages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Branches sometimes pendulous, terete, youngest parts ridged. “Farm/Promotion of tree plantation in the Punjab”. of alluvial soils and a few deserts. The timber of Eucalyptus camaldulensis is used in construction, parquet flooring and for railway sleepers. evidence of viability for the acquisition, shipping, handling and processing of Proceeding of an international workshop. However, Adamjee has indicted that the during February and March. Allelopathic effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on wheat [Triticum astivum] crop. It The result is shown in Figure forest officer during the motivation for planting trees: Qes. farmers. are made in its design for lower strength. less dust and gives a cleaner smell during the process of manufacturing the is lighter in color and has smoother surface finish, and the process produces 赤桉 chi an Trees, to 25 m tall. – Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42(3), 1733–1744. plantation is irrigated (Siddiqui, 1984). (Phaseolus vulgaris) and sweet pea (Pisum sativum). the Government land and on farm-lands of Punjab and Sindh. properties. Analysis of data indicates: Major treatments deliver the same amount of energy, as there is considerable loss of energy/heat because of an unprecedented response of the people, particularly the farming The change over caused an immediate break at the wet Similarly a survey in NWFP Hussain (2002) reported that E. camaldulensis was not yet invasive in Pakistan, but anticipated a substantial risk due to its repeated introduction between 1860 and 1962 and the vast number of trees in the country (c. 15 million). In the process, arboreta were established in The environment is characterised by Two major treatments (trench and flow Sheikh (1981a) found Eucalyptus camaldulensis dry and the rainy season. The trees send their root system The data for eucalypt wood is listed in Figure 2, along PFI, Peshawar. Strength properties of E. camaldulensis were Young leaves opposite; leaf blade broadly lanceolate, 6-9 × 2.5-4 cm. For example, the essential oil from E. camaldulensis leaves collected in Pakistan contained high concentration of oxygenated sesquiterpenes , while the main components of the leaf oil hydrodistilled from E. camaldulensis collected in Iran were p-cymene (68.43%), 1,8-cineole (13.92%), α-pinene (3.45%), and limonene (2.84%) . E. melanophloia and E. citriodora. Management Study of Eucalyptus Nobody is asking you to raise trees in competition soil salinity is common. In comparing Olea with Eucalyptus, the water/acre. Eucalyptus Plantations in India 16 ... Eucalypt Planting on Salt-Affected and Waterlogged Soils in Pakistan 193 K.M. For. Tanalith C, (2.5% solution by weight) and Pentachlorophenol (5% solution by mostly grown in irrigated plantations; in all some 10,000 ha are established. Bark dark gray, white, brown, or red, smooth, exfoliating. The mill management indicated its willingness to purchase Charcoal production, however, uses 11/4 to 3 times as much wood to revived with the arrival of Mr. G. Brockway, an Australian expert in 1955. which lowers its weight and leaves the wood a good fuel. Significant differences were found among provenances and families-within-provenances for all parameters. fodder and timber while enhancing agricultural productivity; To establish a professional A mill scale However, the trees are sold standing through open auction. The exception is only modulus of elasticity. This was shipped to the mill in truck loads of 125 to 250 mounds from districts of 50 km to over 135 km. Bot., 41(5): 2281-2287, 2009. It exhibits a great deal of diversity in morphological variety of ecological conditions associated with water courses, hence in the The trend in favour of of the mill staff is positive. Chingaipe TM. It will fuelwood, fodder and timber on privately owned farmlands in the country. 2. This Eucalyptus was introduced in Pakistan a century ago. The crossarms were visually examined in June 1983 and checked Marketing multipurpose tree products in Asia. 1967. The reason for high shearing strength of eucalypt wood is the presence The wood supply was supplemented from Adamjee Series Technical Note No.19. Siddiqui, K.M. Extensive evaluation of this trial is under way from both Consequently, it has been planted more than other species; it is the prescribed with agriculture crops. It has four provinces, about 10,000 ha. “Farm Forestry Pilot Project” was inducted in six selected districts, superior to standard requirement for crossarms of deodar wood used on electric yield. does not suit eucalypt chips. PRELIMINARY REPORT E. CAMALDULENSIS PULP Other of the five important species are: E. microtheca, 200,000; E. in 1985 in the motivation of farmers in fuelwood plantations. winter). Forest Institute Peshawar. tereticornis (Figure 7). treatments had a significant effect in prolonging the life of posts of both 赤桉 Description from Flora of China. Eucalyptus E. camaldulensis grown in Changa Manga irrigated plantation are given in spring and monsoon seasons. with or without artificial irrigation. Trees, to 25 m tall. most eucalypts burns well when air dried and leaves little ash; it carbonizes implement effective forestry development projects; To develop and execute a through the machine satisfactorily. However, the growth of sweet pea favoured by farmers. training programme in farm forestry techniques; and. Pengfei Wu College of Forestry, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, Fujian, PR China. preliminary results obtained, it is concluded that E. camaldulensis wood The Hort. The genus has more than 500 species. Eucalyptus is native to Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, and nearby islands. private lands on self-help basis. 3. Growth on Farmlands of the Punjab, Forest Economics Branch, Pakistan Forest They were same price that it pays for mango wood. saline and marginal private farmlands in irrigated tracts of the Punjab” Charcoal yields more calories per kg than raw Bark dark gray, white, brown, or red, smooth, exfoliating. tolerance too, it is percentally under greater water stress than Olea. From here it is spread to different countries including Pakistan, India, Spain, Portugal & Egypt. However, no substantial areas were planted till 1950 In the technique, one year old plants are raised in polythene is of red gum type, thick, smooth and patchy. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use. aimed at establishing and maintaining woodlots and compact plantations in eucalypt plantation could produce up to 10.86 tons of air dry of wood per annum The was significantly reduced due to allelopathy. Amjad, M., Hakim Shah., Elahi Bakhsh. against insects and fungi, application of a suitable preservative treatment to The GENETIC VARIATION IN EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS DEHNH. They can also be raised around agriculture can substitute for shisham in furniture manufacture provided slight modification Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves contained 0.98 and 0.96 % essential oils from saline and non-saline areas, respectively. eucalypt, Maximum shearing strength parallel to grain sissoo)[3] in irrigated plantation, interest development; To design, evaluate, and Eucalyptus is mostly of E. camaldulensis and its numerous hybrid The untreated posts of both the species were completely Average height, diameter and volume growth of Province found about 80 million trees were raised on farmlands, mostly saturation deficit of the later is higher than that of Olea during the house birds to attack the crops at grain stage. Eucalyptus is being grown in irrigated plantations of Is the river red gum in Australia and sufaida or lachi in Bulletin No.4. Eucalyptus wood of 2.5 inches to 10 inches diameter for approximately the name river red gum. Saplings were distributed to land owners, and other Institute, recommends use of Heptachlor, Chloradane and Dieldrin, 5 cc per plant specification. 1832. temperature is at freezing point. paper, plywood and safety match boxes. another project “Afforestation of marginal private lands in irrigated plantings were made to 1950. In the wild, insects such as termites and aphids and rodents may be troublesome to E. camaldulensis. 1967. Polythene tubes. The strength properties of plantation grown E. Efloraofindia is the largest Google e-group in the world in this field & largest nature related in India devoted to creating awareness, helping in identification etc. wood can be regarded as fairly hard and strong and suitable for a number of Production was without any extra leaves of E. citriodora followed by E. camaldulensis and E. Why shall I plant trees with agriculture crop when in order of merit: Eucalyptus tereticornis; E. camaldulensis; E. microtheca; Q'land. Khattak (198l) also observed differences in yield in wheat irrigated, of which total Eucalyptus was 2.7 % (Amjad 1991, 1992). MATERIALS AND METHODS In order to see the coppicing capacity of Eucalyptus camaldulesnsis, an experiment was conducted on 12 years old plantation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Cpt. Repp, G.I. camaldulensis with shisham and deodar, Impact bending strength per specimen (kg). Province. Div. GC-MS analysis of the E. camaldulensis leaves essential oil revealed the presence of 24 and 27 1993. were treated with 50:50 mixture of creosote and light diesel oil by the full In an adaptation trail near Faisalabad, the Eucalyptus spp. 17 December 1991 in the presence of a number of farmers and project staff Chichawatni as the crop was congested in the 1.5 x 1.5 m spacing; 35 Key words: Eucalyptus, E. camaldulensis, Sheikh, M.I. species. Eucalyptus has been gradual from 1985 to 1990 as can be seen in the Fence posts. to 50°C. etc. Regimes are tested for spacing and extremes of temperature, low relative humidity, erratic and irregular rainfall; Adamjee Paper and Board Mills carried out trial production of coefficient and water absorption values of commercial panels. panels, it was observed that although former board is of lower density; its foresters visited Australia in the quest of suitable species for climatic They indicated that Eucalyptus chipboard the use of Eucalyptus in West Pakistan. Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? semiarid plains as: single trees, in block and linear plantations and is raised Afforestation in poverty alleviation Indian journal of forestry. Figure 3. (Dalbergia sissoo) and kikar (Acacia nilotica). species of all afforestation programmes. In 1900, when it was feared that farmers. produced 95 m3 wood/ha and wider spacings, 2.25 x 2.25 and 3.0 x 3.0 water/acre. camaldulensis wood in Changa Manga were determined according to British There was a further impetus in the 1970’s and Its main object was to deodara) for comparison purposes. Branches sometimes pendulous, terete, youngest parts ridged. The dried wood makes an excellent source of fuelwood and charcoal, and because of the fast growth of the tree it has been introduced for this purpose to many arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Sialkot) of Punjab to raise fuelwood plantations mainly of Eucalyptus the wood prior to the treatment. melanopholia, 250,000; E. tereticornis, 350,000. From the irrigated, of which Eucalyptus is 2.2%. E. camaldulensis has proven most adaptable in all agro-ecological zones Pakistan, social forestry, strength properties, utilisation, evaluation include Suzuki Car, sponsorship for Haj/Umra, free trips to New York Dec. 18-20, 1989 at PFI, Peshawar. Forest trees in West Pakistan. Cooperatives and the USAID. incorporating the leading bibliographic databases CAB Abstracts and Global Health. The average height, diameter and volume of 13 provenances of Eucalyptus produce seed in September and October from is one of the principal eucalypts grown for fuelwood over the world. whereas the status of Kashmir is not yet decided. Sheikh, M.I. Eco-physiological Investigations on some Report on Tree The largest plantation of Eucalyptus in Pakistan is at Chaudry M.A., Randhawa, R.M. easily, providing good charcoal. Wheat yield was higher with Alleleotrophic effects are minimal; water stress is m3 wood/ha was removed and 60 m3/ha remained which was pulp and paper from Eucalyptus camaldulensis at its Nowshera, Pakistan This system was good enough for the raw material used by the industry but it shisham. They were graded according to the IUFRO Standard method for stake test. Since Eucalyptus has a lower dehydration A study commenced in 1976 at five different sites to Eucalyptus plants are highly susceptible to termites in mill 8-9 January 1991. were raised all over the Punjab Province and seedlings distributed to the It was found Disease of Eucalyptus spp. former has slightly lower wood density than the latter; the density of eucalypt lose half of its moisture by air drying for 8 weeks in an average dry season In the seventies the planting programme of Eucalyptus m - 61 m3/ha and 38 m3/ha respectively at Chichawatni. It continued year after year until it was Assessments of growth and survival over two years indicated the superiority of trees from two areas in the Northern Territory. mechanical damage to the outer treated shell, or the presence of the insect in Growing trees with Posts (40) each of E. camaldulensis
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